Use of eye care services among diabetic patients in urban Indonesia.

Adriono G, Wang D, Octavianus C, Congdon N.

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To assess the use of eye care and its predictors among diabetic patients in Indonesia.


Diabetic patients aged 18 years and older were recruited consecutively from a university clinic and 2 community clinics in Jakarta, Indonesia. Information obtained by questionnaire and record review included demographic and socioeconomic status, knowledge about diabetic retinopathy, and ocular and medical history. The main outcome was self-reported or record history of an eye examination by an eye care professional with dilation of the pupil within the preceding year.


Among 196 participants (mean [SD] age, 58.4 [9.4] years; 61.5% female), 166 (84.7%) had not undergone ocular examination in the last year, including 100 of 119 patients (84.0%) at the university clinic. Fewer than half (82 of 166 [49.4%]) of all patients reported being told of the need for eye examinations by their physician. In regression analyses, factors associated with having an eye examination were higher diabetic retinopathy knowledge score (odds ratio = 1.52; P = .01) and years since being diagnosed as having diabetes (odds ratio = 1.71 for third vs first tertile; P = .02). Education, income, health insurance status, and diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy were not predictive of examination. The most common reasons given by subjects for not having had eye examinations concerned lack of knowledge about the need for care (97 of 160 subjects [60.6%]), while financial barriers were cited by only 22 of 160 subjects (13.8%).


The low proportion of diabetic subjects receiving recommended annual eye examinations in Indonesia might be improved through patient and physician education.
Original languageEnglish
JournalArchives of Ophthalmology
Publication statusPublished - 2011


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