The mycotoxin alternariol (AOH) is an important contaminant of fruits and cereal products. The current study sought to address the effect of a non-toxic AOH concentration on the proteome of the steroidogenic H295R cell model. Quantitative proteomics based on stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) coupled to 1D-SDS-PAGE-LC-MS/MS was applied to subcellular-enriched protein samples. Gene ontology (GO) and ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) were further carried out for functional annotation and identification of protein interaction networks. Furthermore, the effect of AOH on apoptosis and cell cycle distribution was also determined by the use of flow cytometry analysis. This work identified 22 proteins that were regulated significantly. The regulated proteins are those involved in early stages of steroid biosynthesis (SOAT1, NPC1, and ACBD5) and C21-steroid hormone metabolism (CYP21A2 and HSD3B1). In addition, several proteins known to play a role in cellular assembly, organization, protein synthesis, and cell cycle were regulated. These findings provide a new framework for studying the mechanisms by which AOH modulates steroidogenesis in H295R cell model.