Using the Grade Approach to Support the Development of Recommendations for Public Health Interventions in Radiation Emergencies

Z Carr, M Clarke, E A Akl, R Schneider, C Murith, C Li, J Parrish-Sprowl, L Stenke, L Cui-Ping, S Bertrand, C Miller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


The World Health Organization (WHO) guideline development policy requires that WHO guidelines be developed in a manner that is transparent and based on all available evidences, which must be synthesised and formally assessed for quality. To fulfil this requirement, the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach of rating quality of evidence and grading strength of recommendations was applied when developing the WHO recommendations on public health interventions in radiation emergencies. The guideline development group (GDG) formulated 10 PICO (P: population; I: intervention; C: comparator; O: outcomes) questions to guide the development of recommendations on response interventions during the early/intermediate and late emergency phases and on risk communications for mitigating psycho-social impact of radiation emergencies. For each PICO question, an extensive evidence search and systematic review was conducted. The GDG then formulated the recommendations using the evidence to recommendation (E-2-R) decision-making matrix and evaluated the strength of each recommendation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)144-55
JournalRadiation Protection Dosimetry
Issue number1
Early online date12 Aug 2016
Publication statusPublished - 22 Sep 2016


  • Chernobyl Nuclear Accident
  • Communication
  • Decision Making
  • Disaster Planning
  • Disasters
  • Emergencies
  • Environmental Exposure
  • Evidence-Based Medicine
  • Female
  • Fukushima Nuclear Accident
  • Guidelines as Topic
  • Humans
  • Japan
  • Male
  • Nuclear Power Plants
  • Occupational Exposure
  • Program Development
  • Public Health
  • Quality Assurance, Health Care
  • Radioactive Hazard Release
  • Risk Assessment
  • Ukraine
  • World Health Organization
  • Journal Article


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