Validating the Type D personality construct in Chinese patients with coronary heart disease

Doris S.F. Yu*, Cheuk Man Yu, Susanne S. Pedersen, Johan Denollet, David Thompson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

38 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: Type D personality predicts poor prognosis in coronary heart disease (CHD) but little is known about Type D in non-Western cultures. We examined the (a) validity of the Type D construct and its assessment with the DS14 scale in the Chinese culture, (b) prevalence of Type D, and (c) gender vs. Type D discrepancies in depression/anxiety, among Chinese patients with CHD. Method: Patients with CHD (N=326) completed the Chinese version of the DS14. The NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Stress Symptom Checklist (SSC) were administered to subsamples to establish construct and discriminant validity.Administration of the DS14, HADS, and SSC was repeated at 1 month after hospital discharge in 66 patients, and stability of the DS14 was examined in another subsample of 100 patients. Results: The theoretical structure of the Type D construct in the Chinese culture was supported (Χ2/df=2.89, root mean square error of approximation=0.08, normal fit index=0.91, non-normal fit index=0.91, comparative fit index=0.93). The Negative Affectivity (NA) and Social Inhibition (SI) subscales of the DS14 in the entire sample were internally consistent (Cronbach's alpha=0.89/0.81), measured stable traits (3-month test-retest ICC=0.76/0.74), and correlated significantly with the neuroticism (NA/neuroticism, r=0.78, P<001) and extraversion subscales (SI/extraversion, r=-0.64, P<001) of the NEO-FFI, respectively. The prevalence of Type D personality was 31%. Type D was not related to transient emotional states. However, Chinese patients with a Type D personality were at increased concurrent risk of anxiety (P=002) and depression (P=016). Conclusion: Type D personality is a cross-culturally valid construct, is associated with an increased risk of anxiety and depression, and deserves prompt attention in estimating the prognostic risk of Chinese CHD patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)111-118
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Psychosomatic Research
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 01 Aug 2010


  • Anxiety
  • Coronary heart disease
  • Depression
  • DS14 scale
  • Psychometric evaluation
  • Type D personality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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