Validation of the Italian version of the 25-item Hikikomori Questionnaire (HQ-25-I)

Emanuele Fino*, Paolo Iliceto, Antonino Carcione, Eleni Giovani, Gabriella Candilera

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)
21 Downloads (Pure)


Introduction: The present study aimed to adapt the 25-item Hikikomori Questionnaire to the Italian context (HQ-25-I) and to test its psychometric properties in two samples, particularly a sample of residents with psychiatric conditions (n = 117) and a sample of individuals from the community (n = 209). 

Methods: We tested the fit of the original three-factor structure (Socialization, Isolation, and Emotional Support) and measurement invariance across the two groups, and the reliability, convergent, and criterion (concurrent) validity of the HQ-25-I. 

Results: The results showed that the original measurement model fitted the data well and that it was invariant across the two groups. The measure was reliable and positively correlated with some maladaptive personality trait domains (PID-5-BF), Depression (BDI-II), and Hopelessness (BHS) in both groups, with higher scores observed in the clinical sample. However, low correlations were found between the HQ-25-I and the PID-5-BF Detachment and Negative Affectivity. 

Conclusions: The results from the study showed that the HQ-25-I is reliable, but further examination of its validity is warranted. Implications for theory and future research are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)210-227
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Clinical Psychology
Issue number1
Early online date16 Jun 2022
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The study was realized with the support of S&P Statistics & Psychometrics Ltd, Rome, Italy.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Psychology published by Wiley Periodicals LLC.


  • depression
  • emotional support
  • Hikikomori
  • isolation
  • socialization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Clinical Psychology


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