Ferrocene, Fc, and cobaltocenium hexafluorophosphate, CcPF(6), have been recommended for use as internal reference redox couples in room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), as well as in more conventional aprotic solvents. In this study, the electrochemical behavior of Fc and CcPF(6) is reported in eight commonly used RTILs; [C(2)mim][NTf2], [C(4)mim][NTf2], [C(4)mim][BF4], [C(4)mim][PF6], [C(4)mim][OTf], [C(4)mim][NO3], [C(4)mpyrr][NTf2], and [P-14,P-6.6,P-6][FAP], where [C(n)mim](+) = 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium, [NTf2](-) = bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, [BF4](-) = tetrafluoroborate, [PF6](-) = hexafluorophosphate, [OTf](-) = trifluoromethylsulfonate, [NO3](-) = nitrate, [C(4)mpyrr](+) = N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium, [P-14,P-6,P-6,P-6](+) = tris(ri-hexyl)-tetradecylphosphonium and [FAP](-) = trifluorotris(pentafluoroethyl)phosphate, over a range of concentrations and temperatures. Solubilities and diffusion coefficients, D, of both the charged and neutral species were determined using double potential-step chronoamperometry, and CcPF(6) (36.5-450.0 mM) was found to be Much more Soluble than Fc (27.5-101.8 mM). It was observed that classical Stokes-Einstein diffusional behavior applies for Fc and CcPF(6) in all eight RTILs. Diffusion coefficients of Fc and CcPF(6) were calculated at a range of temperatures, and activation energies calculated. It was also determined that D for Fc and CcPF(6) does not change significantly with concentration. This supports the use of both Fe and CcPF(6) to provide a well-characterized and model redox couple for use as a voltammetric internal potential reference in RTILs contrary to previous literature reports in the former case.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films