We develop a theoretical model of enforcement and compliance under HACCP regulation and use the FDA's seafood inspection records to examine: (1) if the FDA has targeted its inspections under HACCP regulation; (2) the effects of inspections on compliance with HACCP and plant sanitation standards; and (3) the relationship between compliance with HACCP and preexisting sanitation standards. There is some evidence of targeting based on product risk, but not on past compliance performance. The threat of an inspection increases the likelihood of compliance, but only for sanitation inspections, not for HACCP. HACCP compliance does not improve compliance with sanitation standards. © 2008 American Agricultural Economics Association.