Wave Digital Modeling of the Diode-Based Ring Modulator

Alberto Bernardini, Kurt James Werner, Paolo Maffezzoni, Augusto Sarti

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaperpeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


The ring modulator is a strongly nonlinear circuit common in audio gear, especially as part of electronic musical instruments. In this paper, an accurate model based on Wave Digital (WD) principles is developed for implementing the ring modulator as a digital audio effect. The reference circuit is constituted of four diodes and two multi-winding transformers. The proposed WD implementation is based on the Scattering Iterative Method (SIM), recently developed for the static analysis of large nonlinear photovoltaic arrays. In this paper, SIM is shown to be suitable for implementing also audio circuits for Virtual Analog applications, such as the ring modulator, since it is stable, robust and comparable to or more efficient than state-of-the-art strategies in terms of computational cost.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - 14 May 2018
Event144th Audio Engineering Society Pro Audio Convention - Milan, Italy
Duration: 24 May 201826 May 2018


Conference144th Audio Engineering Society Pro Audio Convention
Internet address


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