Wearable Antennas for Human Identification at 2.45 GHz

Waqar Saadat, Sumit A. Raurale, Gareth A. Conway, John McAllister

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, antenna sensitivity to the human body was investigated for the purpose of user identification. Through numerical and experimental analysis, the variation of the antenna return loss was measured while interacting with multiple human bodies at 2.45 GHz. A new antenna is proposed, which distributes the field within the tissue, enhancing the identification accuracy of the machine learning algorithm. Experiments conducted on six human subjects gave classification accuracy of approximately 98%. To overcome the reduction in radiation efficiency, a layered stacked patch design is introduced which increases the radiation efficiency to 27% for the close fitting wearable antenna.

Original languageEnglish
JournalIEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Early online date25 Jun 2021
Publication statusEarly online date - 25 Jun 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:


  • Antenna
  • Antenna measurements
  • Antennas
  • Biometrics (access control)
  • electric field
  • Fats
  • Muscles
  • radiation efficiency
  • return loss
  • tissues
  • Wireless communication
  • Wrist

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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