XOR-Based Low-Cost Reconfigurable PUFs for IoT Security

Weiqiang Liu, Lei Zhang, Zhengran Zhang, Chongyan Gu, Chenghua Wang, Maire O'Neill, Fabrizio Lombardi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

With the rapid development of the Internet of Things (IoT), security has attracted considerable interest. Conventional security solutions that have been proposed for the Internet based on classical cryptography cannot be applied to IoT nodes due as they are typically resource-constrained. A physical unclonable function
(PUF) is a hardware-based security primitive and can be used to generate a key online or uniquely identify an integrated circuit (IC) by extracting its internal random differences using so-called challenge-response pairs (CRPs). It is regarded as a promising low-cost solution for IoT security. A logic reconfigurable PUF (RPUF) is highly efficient in terms of hardware cost. This paper first presents a new classification for RPUFs, namely circuit-based RPUF (C-RPUF) and algorithm-based RPUF (A-RPUF); two XOR-based RPUF circuits (an
XOR-based reconfigurable bistable ring PUF (XRBR PUF) and an XOR-based reconfigurable ring oscillator PUF (XRRO PUF)) are proposed. Both the XRBR and XRRO PUFs are implemented on Xilinx Spartan-6 FPGAs. The implementation results are compared with previous PUF designs and show good uniqueness and reliability. Compared to conventional PUF designs, the most significant advantage of the proposed designs is that they are highly efficient in terms of hardware cost. Moreover, the XRRO PUF is the most efficient design when
compared with previous RPUFs. Also, both the proposed XRRO and XRBR PUFs require only 12.5% of the hardware resources of previous bitstable ring PUFs and reconfigurable RO PUFs, respectively, to generate a 1-bit response. This confirms that the proposed XRBR and XRRO PUFs are very efficient designs with good uniqueness and reliability.
LanguageEnglish
Article number25
JournalACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems
Volume18
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 03 Apr 2019

Fingerprint

Costs
Hardware
Internet of things
Hardware security
Networks (circuits)
Cryptography
Integrated circuits
Field programmable gate arrays (FPGA)
Internet

Keywords

  • Internet of Things (IoT)
  • Low cost
  • Reconfigurable PUF
  • XOR

Cite this

Liu, Weiqiang ; Zhang, Lei ; Zhang, Zhengran ; Gu, Chongyan ; Wang, Chenghua ; O'Neill, Maire ; Lombardi, Fabrizio. / XOR-Based Low-Cost Reconfigurable PUFs for IoT Security. In: ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems. 2019 ; Vol. 18, No. 3.
@article{aafc7f53c3664174aa0fb63636588aec,
title = "XOR-Based Low-Cost Reconfigurable PUFs for IoT Security",
abstract = "With the rapid development of the Internet of Things (IoT), security has attracted considerable interest. Conventional security solutions that have been proposed for the Internet based on classical cryptography cannot be applied to IoT nodes due as they are typically resource-constrained. A physical unclonable function(PUF) is a hardware-based security primitive and can be used to generate a key online or uniquely identify an integrated circuit (IC) by extracting its internal random differences using so-called challenge-response pairs (CRPs). It is regarded as a promising low-cost solution for IoT security. A logic reconfigurable PUF (RPUF) is highly efficient in terms of hardware cost. This paper first presents a new classification for RPUFs, namely circuit-based RPUF (C-RPUF) and algorithm-based RPUF (A-RPUF); two XOR-based RPUF circuits (anXOR-based reconfigurable bistable ring PUF (XRBR PUF) and an XOR-based reconfigurable ring oscillator PUF (XRRO PUF)) are proposed. Both the XRBR and XRRO PUFs are implemented on Xilinx Spartan-6 FPGAs. The implementation results are compared with previous PUF designs and show good uniqueness and reliability. Compared to conventional PUF designs, the most significant advantage of the proposed designs is that they are highly efficient in terms of hardware cost. Moreover, the XRRO PUF is the most efficient design whencompared with previous RPUFs. Also, both the proposed XRRO and XRBR PUFs require only 12.5{\%} of the hardware resources of previous bitstable ring PUFs and reconfigurable RO PUFs, respectively, to generate a 1-bit response. This confirms that the proposed XRBR and XRRO PUFs are very efficient designs with good uniqueness and reliability.",
keywords = "Internet of Things (IoT), Low cost, Reconfigurable PUF, XOR",
author = "Weiqiang Liu and Lei Zhang and Zhengran Zhang and Chongyan Gu and Chenghua Wang and Maire O'Neill and Fabrizio Lombardi",
year = "2019",
month = "4",
day = "3",
doi = "10.1145/3274666",
language = "English",
volume = "18",
journal = "ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems",
issn = "1539-9087",
publisher = "ACM",
number = "3",

}

XOR-Based Low-Cost Reconfigurable PUFs for IoT Security. / Liu, Weiqiang; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Zhengran; Gu, Chongyan; Wang, Chenghua ; O'Neill, Maire; Lombardi, Fabrizio.

In: ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems, Vol. 18, No. 3, 25, 03.04.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - XOR-Based Low-Cost Reconfigurable PUFs for IoT Security

AU - Liu, Weiqiang

AU - Zhang, Lei

AU - Zhang, Zhengran

AU - Gu, Chongyan

AU - Wang, Chenghua

AU - O'Neill, Maire

AU - Lombardi, Fabrizio

PY - 2019/4/3

Y1 - 2019/4/3

N2 - With the rapid development of the Internet of Things (IoT), security has attracted considerable interest. Conventional security solutions that have been proposed for the Internet based on classical cryptography cannot be applied to IoT nodes due as they are typically resource-constrained. A physical unclonable function(PUF) is a hardware-based security primitive and can be used to generate a key online or uniquely identify an integrated circuit (IC) by extracting its internal random differences using so-called challenge-response pairs (CRPs). It is regarded as a promising low-cost solution for IoT security. A logic reconfigurable PUF (RPUF) is highly efficient in terms of hardware cost. This paper first presents a new classification for RPUFs, namely circuit-based RPUF (C-RPUF) and algorithm-based RPUF (A-RPUF); two XOR-based RPUF circuits (anXOR-based reconfigurable bistable ring PUF (XRBR PUF) and an XOR-based reconfigurable ring oscillator PUF (XRRO PUF)) are proposed. Both the XRBR and XRRO PUFs are implemented on Xilinx Spartan-6 FPGAs. The implementation results are compared with previous PUF designs and show good uniqueness and reliability. Compared to conventional PUF designs, the most significant advantage of the proposed designs is that they are highly efficient in terms of hardware cost. Moreover, the XRRO PUF is the most efficient design whencompared with previous RPUFs. Also, both the proposed XRRO and XRBR PUFs require only 12.5% of the hardware resources of previous bitstable ring PUFs and reconfigurable RO PUFs, respectively, to generate a 1-bit response. This confirms that the proposed XRBR and XRRO PUFs are very efficient designs with good uniqueness and reliability.

AB - With the rapid development of the Internet of Things (IoT), security has attracted considerable interest. Conventional security solutions that have been proposed for the Internet based on classical cryptography cannot be applied to IoT nodes due as they are typically resource-constrained. A physical unclonable function(PUF) is a hardware-based security primitive and can be used to generate a key online or uniquely identify an integrated circuit (IC) by extracting its internal random differences using so-called challenge-response pairs (CRPs). It is regarded as a promising low-cost solution for IoT security. A logic reconfigurable PUF (RPUF) is highly efficient in terms of hardware cost. This paper first presents a new classification for RPUFs, namely circuit-based RPUF (C-RPUF) and algorithm-based RPUF (A-RPUF); two XOR-based RPUF circuits (anXOR-based reconfigurable bistable ring PUF (XRBR PUF) and an XOR-based reconfigurable ring oscillator PUF (XRRO PUF)) are proposed. Both the XRBR and XRRO PUFs are implemented on Xilinx Spartan-6 FPGAs. The implementation results are compared with previous PUF designs and show good uniqueness and reliability. Compared to conventional PUF designs, the most significant advantage of the proposed designs is that they are highly efficient in terms of hardware cost. Moreover, the XRRO PUF is the most efficient design whencompared with previous RPUFs. Also, both the proposed XRRO and XRBR PUFs require only 12.5% of the hardware resources of previous bitstable ring PUFs and reconfigurable RO PUFs, respectively, to generate a 1-bit response. This confirms that the proposed XRBR and XRRO PUFs are very efficient designs with good uniqueness and reliability.

KW - Internet of Things (IoT)

KW - Low cost

KW - Reconfigurable PUF

KW - XOR

U2 - 10.1145/3274666

DO - 10.1145/3274666

M3 - Article

VL - 18

JO - ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems

T2 - ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems

JF - ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems

SN - 1539-9087

IS - 3

M1 - 25

ER -