In existing WiFi-based localization methods, smart mobile devices consume quite a lot of power as WiFi interfaces need to be used for frequent AP scanning during the localization process. In this work, we design an energy-efficient indoor localization system called ZigBee assisted indoor localization (ZIL) based on WiFi fingerprints via ZigBee interference signatures. ZIL uses ZigBee interfaces to collect mixed WiFi signals, which include non-periodic WiFi data and periodic beacon signals. However, WiFi APs cannot be identified from these WiFi signals by ZigBee interfaces directly. To address this issue, we propose a method for detecting WiFi APs to form WiFi fingerprints from the signals collected by ZigBee interfaces. We propose a novel fingerprint matching algorithm to align a pair of fingerprints effectively. To improve the localization accuracy, we design the K-nearest neighbor (KNN) method with three different weighted distances and find that the KNN algorithm with the Manhattan distance performs best. Experiments show that ZIL can achieve the localization accuracy of 87%, which is competitive compared to state-of-the-art WiFi fingerprint-based approaches, and save energy by 68% on average compared to the approach based on WiFi interface.
Niu, J., Wang, B., Shu, L., Duong, T. Q., & Chen, Y. (2015). ZIL: An Energy-Efficient Indoor Localization System Using ZigBee Radio to Detect WiFi Fingerprints. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 33(7), 1431-1442. https://doi.org/10.1109/JSAC.2015.2430171