Sino-foreign jurisdictional disputes: Robert Hart, the Maritime Customs and international law in China, 1863-1908

  • Georgios Moraitis

Student thesis: Doctoral ThesisDoctor of Philosophy


This thesis explores the role of Sir Robert Hart in China's early engagement with Western international law, using his personal records and case studies of Sino-foreign jurisdictional disputes. The research argues that Hart's approach was pragmatic and paternalistic, aimed at elevating China's status in the Western-dominated global arena. The case studies show how Hart used these disputes to promote his ideas and strengthen the CIMC's authority.

The thesis is embargoed until 31 July 2028.

Date of AwardJul 2023
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • Queen's University Belfast
SponsorsThe SPaRK Programme
SupervisorEmma Reisz (Supervisor), Alice Panepinto (Supervisor) & Aglaia De Angeli (Supervisor)

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