Stakeholders of terrorism, the war on terror and Caribbean preparedness

  • Dr Emanuel Quashie

Student thesis: Doctoral ThesisDoctor of Philosophy


This thesis offers the Stakeholders of Terrorism concept with a view to more fully understanding the Caribbean’s preparedness for, and vulnerability to terrorism. In doing so, it presents an original assessment of the underscrutinised subject of terrorism as it relates to the Caribbean. It argues more broadly the existence of an inherent duality, a multiplicity of negatives and positives that are simultaneously present in most situations regarding terrorism.

The sequence of argument is as follows. First (Chapter One), the thesis provides a concise statement of the problem to be addressed; aims and objectives and rationale for the thesis; definition and conceptualisation of the Stakeholders of Terrorism concept; the main research question; the conceptual framework to be utilised. The last of these briefly introduces two Schmittian perspectives (sovereign/exception and friend-enemy concept), which will be deployed in relation to President Bush’s War on Terror and (more broadly) the stakeholders of terrorism. The next chapter (Chapter Two) describes the research design, which involves the research methodology, data collection process, data analysis tools, data triangulation, sampling techniques, ethical issues, delimitations, and study limitations. The thesis used a series of qualitative research methods, including nine elite interviews; a focus group study comprised of eight Caribbean nationals from different countries; and other first-hand sources (such as official documents published at both the national and regional levels, and a series of anti-terrorism legislative documents).

Third (Chapter Three), the thesis offers a systematic examination of existing scholarly explanations for the emergence and sustenance of terroristic violence (including psychological dimensions, cultural/civilisational contexts, religious dimensions, strategic dynamics, political contexts and frameworks and economic dimensions); this Chapter also sets out the existing literature as it relates to the selected stakeholders of terrorism (U.S. mainstream media, ISIS, individual perpetrators of terrorism), as well as the literature on the War on Terror. Fourth (Chapter Four), offers a detailed explanation and illustration on how the Stakeholders of Terrorism concept borrows from and adds to the existing literature (on the explanations and on stakeholders of terrorism). The chapter also offers a broader conceptual understanding of Bush’s War on Terror through the Schmittian perspectives (friend-enemy, state of exception and sovereign), as well as a conceptual understanding of the stakeholders of terrorism through the friend-enemy concept.

Fifth (Chapter Five), the thesis offers a concise overview of the existing literature on terrorism-related matters as it pertains to the Caribbean, which includes the War on Terror. Sixth (Chapter Six), presents a detailed discussion of the data collected (findings) in the field by means of the qualitative methodology. The findings presented in Chapter Six seek to offer a full understanding of terrorism within the Caribbean context by deploying the Stakeholders of Terrorism concept, and the broader conceptual framework. In doing so, it adds to the prevailing literature as it pertains to the specific explanations of terrorism, the stakeholders of terrorism, the War on Terror and most importantly, the existing literature regarding terrorism-related matters (including the War on Terror) within the Caribbean context. Lastly (Chapter Seven), drawing on the findings, the thesis presents concluding arguments based on the Stakeholders of Terrorism concept and offers some practical recommendations aimed at reducing the region’s vulnerability to, and enhancing its preparedness for terrorism.

Thesis embargoed until 31 July 2024.
Date of AwardJul 2022
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • Queen's University Belfast
SponsorsCommonwealth Scholarship Commission in the UK
SupervisorMichael Bourne (Supervisor) & Richard English (Supervisor)


  • Terrorism
  • US mainstream media
  • Islamic State (ISIS/ISIL)
  • lone wolf
  • individual actors
  • war on terror
  • stakeholders of terrorism
  • Caribbean vulnerability
  • Caribbean preparedness

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