Supplementation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) alleviates complications such as graft-versus-host disease, leading to a speedy recovery of hematopoiesis. To meet such clinical demand, a fast MSCs expansion method is required. In the present study, we examined the feasibility of expanding MSCs from the isolated bone marrow mononuclear cells using a rotary bioreactor system. The cells were cultured in a rotary bioreactor with Myelocultâ?¢ medium containing a combination of supplementary factors, including stem cell factor (SCF), interleukin 3 and 6 (IL-3, IL-6). After 8 days of culture, total cell numbers, Stro-1+CD44+CD34- MSCs and CD34+CD44+Stro-1- HSCs were increased 9, 29, and 8 folds respectively. Colony forming efficiency-fibroblast per day (CFE-F/day) of the bioreactor-treated cells was 1.44-fold higher than that of the cells without bioreactor treatment. The bioreactor-expanded MSCs showed expression of primitive MSCs markers endoglin (SH2) and vimentin, whereas markers associated with lineage differentiation including osteocalcin (osteogenesis), Type II collagen (chondrogenesis) and C/EBPÎ± (adipogenesis) were not detected. Upon induction, the bioreactor-expanded MSCs were able to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Taken together, we conclude that the rotary bioreactor with the modified Myelocultâ?¢ medium reported in this study may be used to rapidly expand MSCs.