Development of Antibodies and Immunoassays for Monitoring of Nitrofuran Antibiotics in the Food Chain

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      Nitrofurans are a broad group of drugs once widely used for the treatment of microbial and proto-zoal infections in many livestock species. However, as concerns grew globally with regard to the potentially carcinogenic and mutagenic effects of their residues in foods, they have been banned from use in many parts of the world. In order to monitor compliance to these bans, it is essential to have fit-for-purpose testing meth-ods. Immunoassays are the screening tool of choice for many testing laboratories due to their relative low cost, ease of use and high sensitivity. As is the case with all immunoassays, the most important reagents required are high quality, high affinity antibodies that exhibit the required sensitivity and specificity. Generating such antibodies for the nitrofuran family of compounds has required a great deal of effort in the design of immuno-gens, as the compounds, due to size, are not capable of eliciting an immune response in hosts and are not eas-ily conjugated to carrier proteins. This article reviews the range of strategies used to successfully generate suitable antibodies to a wide range of these drugs and their metabolites. In addition, the platform technologies for nitrofuran detection have moved from simple enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based proce-dures to more sophisticated multiplexing systems which can undertake faster and broader spectrum testing for the parent drugs and their metabolites. Reviews of the technologies used for immunochemical detection of the nitrofurans and of commercially available test kits are also presented.


      Original languageEnglish
      Number of pages15
      Pages (from-to)2675-2689
      JournalCurrent Organic Chemistry
      Journal publication date2017
      Issue number26
      Early online date15 Sep 2017
      StatePublished - 2017

        Research areas

      • AOZ,Nitrofuran antibiotics,antibodies,derivatisation,food safety,hapten,immunoassays,immunogen

      ID: 135047055