Oxidative desulfurization is a method of removing sulfur from diesel fuel that has the potential to compete with conventional hydrodesulfurization processes in refineries. Ultrasound has been shown to greatly increase peroxide oxidation rates of sulfur compounds and can thereby enhance the technology. Through the use of conceptual design modeling, this article critically assesses a range of novel process options. Calculations show that the rate enhancement achieved by ultrasound can translate into reduced process complexity and costs. By modeling various process options, the separation stage of the process is optimized to reveal that a solid adsorbent combined with a combustion regeneration method is the most economically viable. Although the process is limited to feeds with low sulfur content, it is competitive with conventional hydrotreater technology and superior to upgrading an aging facility.