This paper describes the creation of a germanium on sapphire platform, via wafer bonding technology, for
system-on-a-chip applications. Similar thermal coefficients of expansion between germanium (5.8 x 10-6 K-1) and sapphire (5 x 10-6 K-1) make the bonding of germanium to sapphire a reality. Germanium directly bonded to sapphire results in microvoid generation during post bond annealing. Inclusion of an interface layer such as silicon dioxide layer by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition, prior to bonding, results in a microvoid free bond interface after annealing. Grinding and polishing of the subsequent germanium layer has been achieved leaving a thick germanium on sapphire (GeOS) substrate.
Submicron GeOS layers have also been achieved with hydrogen/helium co-implantation and layer transfer.
Circular geometry transistors exhibiting a field effect mobility of 890 cm2/V s have been fabricated
onto the thick germanium on sapphire layer.