Life cycle assessment of geopolymer concrete: A Malaysian context

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    The production of Portland cement is well acknowledged as having as significant impact on the environment, accounting for 8% of global CO2 emissions (4bn tonnes per annum). Concrete is the most widely used material in the world and therefore has vast potential to absorb high volumes of waste and by-product materials. These materials can act as partial replacements as supplementary cementitious materials or total replacements and perform as binders in geopolymer concretes. The use of Pulverised Fuel Ash (PFA) from coal-fired electricity generating stations to substitute Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) is well established. Quantifying the potential environmental benefit of using such materials can be difficult. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, internationally standardised through ISO14040 series, may be used to quantify the environmental impact of products and processes. This paper outlines the use of the LCA methodology to compare the environmental impact of OPC precast concrete products to PFA precast concrete products in a Malaysian context. The four stages of LCA are detailed and consequences of designating materials as a by-product or waste are discussed. A review of other LCA studies completed in Malaysia for the built environment are also presented so as to identify which impact assessment methods are most frequently used.


    • Life cycle assessment of geopolymer concrete: A Malaysian context

      Rights statement: Copyright 2018 the authors. This is an open access article published under a Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the author and source are cited.

      Accepted author manuscript, 443 KB, PDF-document


    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationCONCET 2018 14th International Conference on Concrete Engineering and Technology
    Subtitle of host publicationIOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering
    Number of pages8
    ISBN (Electronic)1757-899X
    Publication statusPublished - 15 Nov 2018

    ID: 157960298