Mechanical properties of structures 3D printed with cementitious powders

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    The three dimensional (3D) printing technology has undergone rapid development in the last few years and it is now possible to print engineering structures. This paper presents a study of the mechanical behavior of 3D printed structures using cementitious powder. Microscopic observation reveals that the 3D printed products have a layered orthotropic microstructure, in which each layer consists of parallel strips. Compression and flexural tests were conducted to determine the mechanical properties and failure characteristics of such materials. The test results confirmed that the 3D printed structures are laminated with apparent orthotropy. Based on the experimental results, a stress-strain relationship and a failure criterion based on the maximum stress criterion for orthotropic materials are proposed for the structures of 3D printed material. Finally, a finite element analysis was conducted for a 3D printed shell structure, which shows that the printing direction has a significant influence on the load bearing capacity of the structure.


    • Mechanical properties of structures 3D printed with cementitious powders

      Rights statement: Copyright 2015 Elsevier. This manuscript is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License (, which permits distribution and reproduction for non-commercial purposes, provided the author and source are cited.

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    Original languageEnglish
    Number of pages12
    Pages (from-to)486-497
    JournalConstruction and Building Materials
    Journal publication date15 Sep 2015
    Early online date20 Jun 2015
    Publication statusPublished - 15 Sep 2015

      Research areas

    • 3D printing, Anisotropic structure, Automatic construction, Cementitious material, Layered structure, Maximum stress criterion, Stress-strain relationship

    ID: 16571506