There is a growing interest in the utilisation of biomass for a range of applications. Coupled with this is the appeal of improving the circular economy and as such, there is a focus on reusing, recycling and upcycling of many materials, including biomass. This has been driven by society in terms of demand for more sustainable energy and products, but also by a paradigm shift in attitudes of the population to reduce their personal carbon footprint. Herein we have selected a number of types of biomass (woody, herbaceous, etc.) and surveyed the ways in which they are utilised. We have done this in combination with assessing some kinetic modelling approaches which been reported for the evaluation of different processes for the recycling, reuse and upcycling of biomass.