High-resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to study the phase transformations in titanium alloys. Three titanium alloys were investigated: Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo-0.08Si and beta21s. Both room and high temperature measurements were performed. The room temperature experiments were performed to study the structure of the alloys after different heat treatments, namely as received (AR), furnace cooling (FC), water quenching (WQ) and water quenching followed by ageing. The alpha, alpha', alpha'' and beta phases were observed in different combinations depending on the heat treatment conditions and the alloy studied. A multicomponent hexagonal close packed (hcp) alpha phase, with different c and the same a lattice parameters, was detected in Ti-6Al-4V after FC. High temperature synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used for 'in situ' study of the transformations on the sample surface at elevated temperatures. The results were used to trace the kinetics of surface oxidation and the concurrent phase transformations taking place under different conditions. The influence of the temperature and oxygen content on the lattice parameters of the alpha phase was derived and new data obtained on the coefficients of thermal expansion in the different directions of the hcp alpha phase, for Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo-0.08Si.