The feasibility of applying NIR and FT-IR fingerprinting to detect adulteration in black pepper

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    Black pepper is the most widely used spice in the world. Spices are highly vulnerable to economically motivated adulteration as they are high value products and traded along complex supply chains. The main fraud opportunity is to add cheaper bulking materials. Near and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy has been combined with chemometrics to screen for the substitution of black pepper with papaya seeds, chili and with non-functional black pepper material such as black pepper husk, pinheads and defatted spent materials. A good separation performance between black pepper and adulterated samples could be shown. After running a binary classification model with an external test set an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.98 for both, the NIR and FT-IR model was obtained. This study shows the huge potential for a fast and rapid screening method that can be used to prove the authenticity of black pepper and detect adulterants.


    • The feasibility of applying NIR and FT-IR fingerprinting to detect adulteration in black pepper

      Rights statement: Copyright 2019 Elsevier. This manuscript is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License (, which permits distribution and reproduction for non-commercial purposes, provided the author and source are cited.

      Accepted author manuscript, 586 KB, PDF-document

      Embargo ends: 04/01/2020


    Original languageEnglish
    Number of pages7
    Pages (from-to)1-7
    JournalFood Control
    Journal publication date01 Jun 2019
    Early online date04 Jan 2019
    Publication statusPublished - 01 Jun 2019

      Research areas

    • Black Pepper, Authenticity, Adulteration, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Near infrared spectroscopy, Screening method

    ID: 163486375